This paper examines the current state of Turkey’s EU accession process and the ramifications of its potential suspension. EU-Turkey relations are critically important for both sides in their efforts to provide political stability, promote economic growth, and address the refugee crisis. But important voices on both sides feel the current accession-based framework is not working, leading to calls to freeze or even suspend Turkey’s EU bid. While a formal suspension remains unlikely, it cannot be ruled out. This report is based on discussions with officials in Brussels and Ankara; a study of the treaties, regulations, and policy statements governing EU-Turkey relations; and the work of scholars and policy experts.1 It is not meant to weigh the pros and cons of the accession process, but rather aims to provide a basis for a factbased discussion of what a reframing of EU-Turkey relations might entail.